Types of Diabetes



 

PREDIABETES

Are you one of the estimated 54 million people in this country who have pre-diabetes?

If you have pre-diabetes, you are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and also are at increased risk of developing heart disease. Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as full-blown diabetes. Those with pre-diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes within a decade unless they adopt a healthier lifestyle that includes weight loss and more physical activity.
 

Research shows that you can lower your risk for Type II diabetes by 58% by:

  • Losing 7% of your body weight
  • Exercising Moderately (such as brisk walking) 30 minutes a day, five days a week
 

Results of testsindicating prediabetes are:

  • An A1C of 5.7% – 6.4%
  • Fasting blood glucose of 100 – 125 mg/dl
  • An OGTT 2 hour blood glucose of 140 mg/dl – 199 mg/dl
 

If you have prediabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you are checked for Type II diabetes every one to two years.

Source, American Diabetes Association

 




TYPE 1 DIABETES

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.

Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults.

Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications.

 

Symptoms

  Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include:
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Irritability and other mood changes
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Blurred vision
 



TYPE II DIABETES 

Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal. This is also called hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn't able to keep up and can't make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.
 

Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following:

  • Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL
  • Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL
  • Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be repeated on a different day

Source, Mayo Clinic

 

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination: Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual.
  • Increased hunger: Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger.
  • Weight loss: Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine.
  • Fatigue: If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable.
  • Blurred vision: If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus.
  • Slow-healing sores or frequent infections: Type 2 diabetes affects your ability to heal and resist infections.
  • Areas of darkened skin: Some people with type 2 diabetes have patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies — usually in the armpits and neck. This condition, called acanthosis nigricans, may be a sign of insulin resistance.
 

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you notice any type 2 diabetes symptoms.

 



 

GESTATIONAL

Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health.

Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy.

In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar.

 

Symptoms 

For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms.



When to see a doctor

If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health.

Source, Mayo Clinic



 



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